Global ClustersCodeSub-domainTitleDescriptionUnit of MeasurementUnit DescriptionDenominatorNumeratorDisaggregationKey indicatorTypesResponse MonitoringStandardsThresholdGuidance on phasesPhase applicabilityGeneral guidanceGuidance for pre-crisis/baselineCommentsData SourcesSector cross-tagging
Food Security;Health;Logistics;Protection;Nutrition;Water Sanitation Hygiene;Camp Coordination / Management;Education;Emergency Shelter and NFI;Emergency Telecommunications;Early RecoveryAAP-1Feedback MechanismsNumber of feedback received (including complaints) which have been acted uponFeedback mechanisms provide a means for all those affected to comment on and thus indirectly influence programme planning and implementation (see HAP’s ‘participation’ benchmark). They include focus group discussions, surveys, interviews and meetings on ‘lessons learnt’ with a representative sample of all the affected population (see ECB’s Good Enough Guide for tools and Guidance notes 3–4). The findings and the agency’s actions in response to feedback should be systematically shared with the affected population.InstitutionNumberN/ANumber of organisations with formal feedback mechanisms in placeYesProcessYesHAP Benchmark 3 on Sharing information, Sphere Core Standard 1: People-centered humanitarian response, The Good Enough Guide - Section 5: Use feedback to improve project impactAll PhasesPre-crisis/Baseline, Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4Feedback mechanisms can take many forms. Whatever the most appropriate channels are should be used; radio talk back programmes, online surveys, sms and twitter inputs, regularised focus group discussions with selected members of the population, suggestions and complaints boxes, designation of sector or camp committees to feedback on specific topics, prioritisation assessments, through dedicated community engagement staff among many other possibilities. Sex, age, ability or other relevant diversity disaggregation of the feedback received is important in order to understand who is most at risk and to take responsible actions. It is important to remember that feedback needs to be collected, digested and acted upon, and then the results of those actions relayed to the population, then another round of feedback can begin on the changed situation. This is the 'feedback loop' - an ongoing dialogue between the humanitarian community and the affected population. Remember that much of this is already happening - through food monitors, community outreach programmes, ongoing assessments - the important thing is to keep the feedback loop continuing.• Clusters and partners have a formal, appropriate feedback mechanism in place that is discussed and agreed with key stakeholders and publicly communicated. • The feedback mechanism employed is appropriate and robust enough to deal with (communicate, receive, process, respond to and learn from) complaints. • Clusters and Lead Agencies/Advisory Groups (SAG) have oversight of feedback (incl. complaints) mechanism and learn from and react to information received. Agencies, NGOs, Government, Media, etc(C) Camp Coordination / Management, C1 Community engagement and self-empowerment, C1.1 Displacement Site Managers, C1.2 CCCM Mechanisms, C2 Population information management, C2.1 CCCM Mechanisms, C2.2 Return/ Relocation/ Integration, C2.3 Service Provision, C3 Protection and services monitoring and coordination, C3.1 Displacement Site Managers, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.3 CCCM Mechanisms, C3.4 Service Provision - Protection, C3.5 Service Provision - Food and Nutrition, C3.6 Service Provision - Education, C3.7 Protection, C3.8 Access and Movement, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, C3.10 Service Provision - Health, C3.11 Service Provision - Shelter, C4 Camp planning and durable solutions, C4.1 Return/ Relocation/ Integration, (E) Education, E1 Access and Learning Environment, E1.1 Equal Access, E1.2 Facilities and services, E1.3 Protection and Well-being, E2 Teaching and Learning, E2.1 Curricula, E3 Teachers & other education personnel, E3.1 Law and Policy Formulation, E3.2 Recruitment and Selection, E3.3 Supervision, E4 Educational Policy, E4.1 Law and Policy Formulation, (F) Food Security, F1 Food Assistance, F1.1 Cash Transfer, F1.2 Voucher Transfer, F1.3 In-kind Transfer, F1.4 Livelihood Recovery, F2 Livelihood Assistance, F2.1 Cash Transfer, F2.2 Voucher Transfer, F2.3 In-kind Transfer, F3 Food Access, F4 Income Access, F5 Market Access, F6 Availability, F6.1 Food Availability and Agriculture, F6.2 Livestock, F7 Utilization, F8 Agriculture and Livestock, (H) Health, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H2 Child health, H3 Communicable diseases, H4 Sexual and Reproductive Health, H4.1 STI & HIV, H4.2 Maternal and newborn care, H4.3 Sexual violence, H5 Non communicable diseases and mental health, H6 Environmental Health, (L) Logistics, L1 Volume, L2 Weight, (N) Nutrition, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N1.1 SAM, N1.2 MAM, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding, N3 Prevention and Control of Micronutrients Deficiencies, (P) Protection, P1 (PC) Child Protection, PC1 Dangers and Injuries, PC2 Physical violence and other harmful practices, PC3 Sexual violence, PC4 Psychosocial distress and mental disorders, PC5 Children associated with armed forces and armed groups, PC6 Child Labour, PC7 Unaccompanied and separated children, PC8 Justice for Children, PC9 Community-based child protection mechanisms (CBCPM), P2 (PG) Gender-Based Violence, PG1 Developing Referral Pathway for Survivors, PG2 Develop/apply SOPs context specific, PG3 Multi sectoral engagement (health, legal/justice, security, psychosocial), PG4 Advocacy, awareness, education with affected populations, local authorities, international community, PG5 Data collection, storage and sharing, PG6 Prevention Programming, P3 (PL) Housing Land and Property, PL1 HLP Documentation, PL2 Access to Land, PL3 HLP Disputes, PL4 Security of tenure for informal rights holders or vulnerable groups, P4 (PM) Mine Action, PM1 Clearance of Mines and other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), PM2 Mine and ERW risk education, PM3 Stockpile destruction, PM4 Victim Assistance, P5 Vulnerability, P6 Displacement and Return, P7 Documentation, (R) Early Recovery, R1 Economic Recovery and Livelihoods, R2 Basic Infrastructure Restoration, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, (S) Emergency Shelter and NFI, S1 Shelter, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, S2 Shelter-related NFI, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, S3 Shelter-related Fuel/Energy, S3.1 Access, S3.2 Assistance, (T) Emergency Telecommunications, T1 ICT Performance, T2 ETC Coordination, (W) Water Sanitation Hygiene, W1 Hygiene Promotion, W1.1 Hygiene items, W1.2 Hygiene Practices, W2 Water Supply, W2.1 Access and Water Quantity, W2.2 Water Quality, W2.3 Water Facilities, W3 Excreta Disposal, W3.1 Environment, W3.2 Toilet Facilities, W4 Vector Control, W5 Solid Waste Management, W6 Drainage, W7 Aggravating Factors, W8 WASH Programme Design and Implementation
Food Security;Health;Logistics;Protection;Nutrition;Water Sanitation Hygiene;Camp Coordination / Management;Education;Emergency Shelter and NFI;Emergency Telecommunications;Early RecoveryAAP-2Sharing InformationNumber of information products distributed to the affected population through a variety of mechanisms on humanitarian program planning, functioning and progressPeople have a right to accurate and updated information about actions taken on their behalf. Information can reduce anxiety and is an essential foundation of community responsibility and ownership. At a minimum, clusters and agencies should provide a description of the cluster's role and responsibilities, agency’s mandate and project(s), the population’s entitlements and rights, and when and where to access assistance (see HAP’s ‘sharing information’ benchmark). (Sphere Core Standard 1, Guidance Note 4) Possible examples:CommunityNumberN/A# of information messages deliveredYesProcessYesHAP Benchmark 3 on Sharing information, Sphere Core Standard 1: People-centered humanitarian responseAll PhasesPre-crisis/Baseline, Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4Common ways of sharing information include noticeboards, public meetings, schools, newspapers, SMS 'blasts', FAQ flyers or radio and TV broadcasts. The information should demonstrate considered understanding of people’s situations and be conveyed in local language(s), using a variety of adapted media so that it is accessible to all those concerned. For example, use spoken communications or pictures for children and adults who cannot read, use uncomplicated language (i.e. understandable to local 12-year-old) and employ a large typeface when printing information for people with visual impairments. Manage meetings so that older people or those with hearing difficulties can hear. Sex, age, ability or other relevant diversity must be considered when preparing information products as is important in order to understand who is able to access information.• Information about an organisation’s or cluster’s mission, values, legal status and contact details. • Information about projects, plans and activities (in particular beneficiary selection criteria and relevant financial information). • Regular reports of actual performance in relation to previously agreed goals. • Specific details for making comments, suggestions or complaints about the cluster or agency’s activities (preferably a named member of staff). Agencies, NGOs, Government(C) Camp Coordination / Management, C1 Community engagement and self-empowerment, C1.1 Displacement Site Managers, C1.2 CCCM Mechanisms, C2 Population information management, C2.1 CCCM Mechanisms, C2.2 Return/ Relocation/ Integration, C2.3 Service Provision, C3 Protection and services monitoring and coordination, C3.1 Displacement Site Managers, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.3 CCCM Mechanisms, C3.4 Service Provision - Protection, C3.5 Service Provision - Food and Nutrition, C3.6 Service Provision - Education, C3.7 Protection, C3.8 Access and Movement, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, C3.10 Service Provision - Health, C3.11 Service Provision - Shelter, C4 Camp planning and durable solutions, C4.1 Return/ Relocation/ Integration, (E) Education, E1 Access and Learning Environment, E1.1 Equal Access, E1.2 Facilities and services, E1.3 Protection and Well-being, E2 Teaching and Learning, E2.1 Curricula, E3 Teachers & other education personnel, E3.1 Law and Policy Formulation, E3.2 Recruitment and Selection, E3.3 Supervision, E4 Educational Policy, E4.1 Law and Policy Formulation, (F) Food Security, F1 Food Assistance, F1.1 Cash Transfer, F1.2 Voucher Transfer, F1.3 In-kind Transfer, F1.4 Livelihood Recovery, F2 Livelihood Assistance, F2.1 Cash Transfer, F2.2 Voucher Transfer, F2.3 In-kind Transfer, F3 Food Access, F4 Income Access, F5 Market Access, F6 Availability, F6.1 Food Availability and Agriculture, F6.2 Livestock, F7 Utilization, F8 Agriculture and Livestock, (H) Health, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H2 Child health, H3 Communicable diseases, H4 Sexual and Reproductive Health, H4.1 STI & HIV, H4.2 Maternal and newborn care, H4.3 Sexual violence, H5 Non communicable diseases and mental health, H6 Environmental Health, (L) Logistics, L1 Volume, L2 Weight, (N) Nutrition, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N1.1 SAM, N1.2 MAM, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding, N3 Prevention and Control of Micronutrients Deficiencies, (P) Protection, P1 (PC) Child Protection, PC1 Dangers and Injuries, PC2 Physical violence and other harmful practices, PC3 Sexual violence, PC4 Psychosocial distress and mental disorders, PC5 Children associated with armed forces and armed groups, PC6 Child Labour, PC7 Unaccompanied and separated children, PC8 Justice for Children, PC9 Community-based child protection mechanisms (CBCPM), P2 (PG) Gender-Based Violence, PG1 Developing Referral Pathway for Survivors, PG2 Develop/apply SOPs context specific, PG3 Multi sectoral engagement (health, legal/justice, security, psychosocial), PG4 Advocacy, awareness, education with affected populations, local authorities, international community, PG5 Data collection, storage and sharing, PG6 Prevention Programming, P3 (PL) Housing Land and Property, PL1 HLP Documentation, PL2 Access to Land, PL3 HLP Disputes, PL4 Security of tenure for informal rights holders or vulnerable groups, P4 (PM) Mine Action, PM1 Clearance of Mines and other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), PM2 Mine and ERW risk education, PM3 Stockpile destruction, PM4 Victim Assistance, P5 Vulnerability, P6 Displacement and Return, P7 Documentation, (R) Early Recovery, R1 Economic Recovery and Livelihoods, R2 Basic Infrastructure Restoration, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, (S) Emergency Shelter and NFI, S1 Shelter, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, S2 Shelter-related NFI, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, S3 Shelter-related Fuel/Energy, S3.1 Access, S3.2 Assistance, (T) Emergency Telecommunications, T1 ICT Performance, T2 ETC Coordination, (W) Water Sanitation Hygiene, W1 Hygiene Promotion, W1.1 Hygiene items, W1.2 Hygiene Practices, W2 Water Supply, W2.1 Access and Water Quantity, W2.2 Water Quality, W2.3 Water Facilities, W3 Excreta Disposal, W3.1 Environment, W3.2 Toilet Facilities, W4 Vector Control, W5 Solid Waste Management, W6 Drainage, W7 Aggravating Factors, W8 WASH Programme Design and Implementation
Food Security;Health;Logistics;Protection;Nutrition;Water Sanitation Hygiene;Camp Coordination / Management;Education;Emergency Shelter and NFI;Emergency Telecommunications;Early RecoveryAAP-3ParticipationNumber of persons consulted (disaggregated by sex/age) before designing a program/project [alternatively: while implementing the program/project] Participation in design of assessments, programmes, evaluations etc, means that a selected segment(s) of the affected populaiton have a direct influence on decision making.  Measures should be taken to ensure the participation of members of all groups of affected people – young and old, men and women. Special efforts should be made to include people who are not well represented, are marginalised (e.g. by ethnicity or religion) or otherwise ‘invisible’ (e.g. housebound or in an institution).InstitutionNumberN/Anumber of persons consultedYesProcessYesHAP Benchmark 4 on Participation, Sphere Core Standard 1: People-centered humanitarian response, The Good Enough Guide - Tool 3: How to involve people throughout the projectAll PhasesPre-crisis/Baseline, Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4Understanding and addressing the barriers to participation faced by different people is critical to balanced participation. How a cluster or organisation enables key stakeholders to play an active role in the decision-making processes that affect them. It is unrealistic to expect an organisation to engage with all stakeholders over all decisions all of the time. Therefore the organisation must have clear guidelines (and practices) enabling it to prioritize stakeholders appropriately and to be responsive to the differences in power between them. Mechanisms need to be in place to ensure that the most marginalized and affected are represented and have influence. Participation here also encompasses the processes through which an organisation or cluster monitors and reviews its progress and results against goals and objectives; feeds learning back into the organisation on an on-going basis; and reports on the results of the process. To increase accountability to stakeholders, goals and objectives must be also designed in consultation with those stakeholders. A well known example of participation in developing indicators is the WASH indicator developed by a community which was - "# of hours girls spend in school" - highlighting the importance of education to the community, and also that improved water access had improved education possibilities. So the indicator has a measurement of impact built into it, the improved water access as an outcome can be assumed.• Organisations document how it speaks with a balanced cross-section of representatives from the affected communities. • Agency has a verifiable record of how communities (or their representatives) are demonstrably involved and influential in decision-making, implementation and judgement of impact throughout the lifetime of a project. • Agency has mechanisms in place to monitor and evaluate outcomes and impact and these are reported against (incl. to affected communities). • Cluster has a verifiable record of how it identified interest groups in the affected communities, and the power relationships that exist. Agencies, NGOs, Government(C) Camp Coordination / Management, C1 Community engagement and self-empowerment, C1.1 Displacement Site Managers, C1.2 CCCM Mechanisms, C2 Population information management, C2.1 CCCM Mechanisms, C2.2 Return/ Relocation/ Integration, C2.3 Service Provision, C3 Protection and services monitoring and coordination, C3.1 Displacement Site Managers, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.3 CCCM Mechanisms, C3.4 Service Provision - Protection, C3.5 Service Provision - Food and Nutrition, C3.6 Service Provision - Education, C3.7 Protection, C3.8 Access and Movement, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, C3.10 Service Provision - Health, C3.11 Service Provision - Shelter, C4 Camp planning and durable solutions, C4.1 Return/ Relocation/ Integration, (E) Education, E1 Access and Learning Environment, E1.1 Equal Access, E1.2 Facilities and services, E1.3 Protection and Well-being, E2 Teaching and Learning, E2.1 Curricula, E3 Teachers & other education personnel, E3.1 Law and Policy Formulation, E3.2 Recruitment and Selection, E3.3 Supervision, E4 Educational Policy, E4.1 Law and Policy Formulation, (F) Food Security, F1 Food Assistance, F1.1 Cash Transfer, F1.2 Voucher Transfer, F1.3 In-kind Transfer, F1.4 Livelihood Recovery, F2 Livelihood Assistance, F2.1 Cash Transfer, F2.2 Voucher Transfer, F2.3 In-kind Transfer, F3 Food Access, F4 Income Access, F5 Market Access, F6 Availability, F6.1 Food Availability and Agriculture, F6.2 Livestock, F7 Utilization, F8 Agriculture and Livestock, (H) Health, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H2 Child health, H3 Communicable diseases, H4 Sexual and Reproductive Health, H4.1 STI & HIV, H4.2 Maternal and newborn care, H4.3 Sexual violence, H5 Non communicable diseases and mental health, H6 Environmental Health, (L) Logistics, L1 Volume, L2 Weight, (N) Nutrition, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N1.1 SAM, N1.2 MAM, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding, N3 Prevention and Control of Micronutrients Deficiencies, (P) Protection, P1 (PC) Child Protection, PC1 Dangers and Injuries, PC2 Physical violence and other harmful practices, PC3 Sexual violence, PC4 Psychosocial distress and mental disorders, PC5 Children associated with armed forces and armed groups, PC6 Child Labour, PC7 Unaccompanied and separated children, PC8 Justice for Children, PC9 Community-based child protection mechanisms (CBCPM), P2 (PG) Gender-Based Violence, PG1 Developing Referral Pathway for Survivors, PG2 Develop/apply SOPs context specific, PG3 Multi sectoral engagement (health, legal/justice, security, psychosocial), PG4 Advocacy, awareness, education with affected populations, local authorities, international community, PG5 Data collection, storage and sharing, PG6 Prevention Programming, P3 (PL) Housing Land and Property, PL1 HLP Documentation, PL2 Access to Land, PL3 HLP Disputes, PL4 Security of tenure for informal rights holders or vulnerable groups, P4 (PM) Mine Action, PM1 Clearance of Mines and other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), PM2 Mine and ERW risk education, PM3 Stockpile destruction, PM4 Victim Assistance, P5 Vulnerability, P6 Displacement and Return, P7 Documentation, (R) Early Recovery, R1 Economic Recovery and Livelihoods, R2 Basic Infrastructure Restoration, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, (S) Emergency Shelter and NFI, S1 Shelter, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, S2 Shelter-related NFI, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, S3 Shelter-related Fuel/Energy, S3.1 Access, S3.2 Assistance, (T) Emergency Telecommunications, T1 ICT Performance, T2 ETC Coordination, (W) Water Sanitation Hygiene, W1 Hygiene Promotion, W1.1 Hygiene items, W1.2 Hygiene Practices, W2 Water Supply, W2.1 Access and Water Quantity, W2.2 Water Quality, W2.3 Water Facilities, W3 Excreta Disposal, W3.1 Environment, W3.2 Toilet Facilities, W4 Vector Control, W5 Solid Waste Management, W6 Drainage, W7 Aggravating Factors, W8 WASH Programme Design and Implementation
Water Sanitation HygieneW 6-1W6 DrainagePresence of stagnant water on and around the siteA substantial presence may be a large body of standing water such as a pond, a high density of small areas such as water standing in tyre tracks. If the standing water is contaminated wastewater then even small quantities should be considered as significant. Small puddles of rainwater that dry up after a day or so should not be considered a substantial presence. CommunitySubtantial presence / No Substantial PresenceN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutcomeSPHEREN/AStagnant water may include wastewater, rainwater, natural water bodies and standing water that remains after flooding. The presence of substantial quantities of standing water in and around a site, particularly near living areas and drinking water sources creates a risk to public health through faecal contamination (wastewater and run-off may often be faecal contaminated), the creation of vector breeding sites (for mosquitoes, flies etc.), drowning hazard etc. Although mosquitoes and other insect vectors may travel up to several kilometres from their breeding sites, the closer people are to the breeding sites the more likely it is that there will be contact with the vectors. For most concentrated settlements, standing water that is at least 30m from living areas is effectively outside the perimeter of the settlement.N/AN/AObservationH6 Environmental Health, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW 7-1W7 Aggravating FactorsPresence of faecal-oral diseasesFaecal-oral diseases are those diseases that are transmitted by faecal material passing into the mouth, principally via contaminated water, hands and food, and are prevented by improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene. The most important of these diseases in most emergencies are various diarrhoeal diseases. Diseases with outbreak risk are those that may spread rapidly and require a rapid response to protect public health. They include cholera, typhoid, shigellosis, and hepatitis A and E.CommunityOutbreak or epidemic, of faecal-oral disease / High or significantly increasing faecal-oral disease incidence rates / Stable background incidence of faecal-oral diseaseN/AN/APrevalence and incidence rates, disaggregated by sex and ageBaselineN/AThe greater the presence of faecal-oral diseases in a population, the greater the risks created by deficiencies in WASH conditions and the higher the priority that should be given to addressing those deficiencies. In addition, persistent high levels of faecal-oral disease in a population indicate ongoing problems with access to WASH facilities and servicesN/AKey informantC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, (R) Early Recovery, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW 7-2W7 Aggravating FactorsExtent of global acute malnutrition and food insecurityThe global acute malnutrition rate is the percentage of under-five children below 80% (or below -2Z scores) weight for height and/or with oedema. In the acute stages of an emergency this rate may be estimated approximately in a rapid nutritional assessment with a MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) survey by nutrition staff.CommunityLow/ Moderate/ High/ Very HighN/AN/Adisaggregated by sex and ageBaselineN/AMalnutrition and lack of food increase vulnerability to WASH-related diseases and are a key factor in determining the priority of intervention. In addition, acute food insecurity is likely to oblige people to trade resources, including items such as soap, water containers and mosquito nets, in exchange for food.N/AN/AKey informantF3 Food Access, (R) Early Recovery, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW 7-3W7 Aggravating FactorsAccess to health serviceHealth services are preventive and clinical services that aim to address the main causes of excess mortality and morbidity present in the given context. Access is the ability of the affected population to use to, or be covered by, those services. This may be limited by the capacity of health services (human resources, supplies and equipment, systems and procedures) in relation to the population to be served, and by distance, cost, social exclusion, lack of information etc.CommunityAccess / No or Limited AccessN/AN/AN/ABaselineN/AAccess to health services is a key factor for determining the priority of a WASH intervention. Where access is limited, WASH conditions become more important in influencing mortality and morbidity.N/AN/AKey informantH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, (R) Early Recovery, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW 7-4W7 Aggravating FactorsDensity of settlement in m2 of total site area per personThe total site area per person includes shelter plots, and the space needed for roads, footpaths, schools, sanitation, firebreaks, markets, distribution areas etc. In longer-term settlements, space for gardening is also included Communitym2/personTotal nb of personTotal site area in m2N/ABaseline<15 15-30 31-45 >45In high-density settlements the significance of WASH problems tends to be greater. Person-to-person contact and the likelihood of disease transmission increases, and the space available for WASH facilities and for people to practice hygiene comfortably and safely is reducedN/AN/AKey informantC2 Population information management, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, (R) Early Recovery, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW 7-5W7 Aggravating FactorsNb of people on the siteThe number of people on the site is the number of people residing continuously at the site and does not include people who may be registered at the site but who are not physically present, as in the case of a village with scattered outlying houses. CommunityNumber of peopleN/AN/ADisaggregation by sex Baseline>10000 5000-10000 1000-5000 <1000The larger the settlement, the greater the importance of WASH because of the number of people affected and because of the impact of deficiencies in WASH provision. Very large settlements such as urban areas and large camps create particular problems for WASH: it is more difficult to control environmental health risks, establish community-based hygiene promotion activities and promote community participation in the management of facilities. Very large settlements may also place unsustainable demands on limited natural resources, including water resources, and create a large burden of waste to be managed in the local environment. Data should be collected from key informants in the camp management and camp coordination cluster. The figure for number of people on the site may be verified with data used by the shelter and nutrition clusters for distributions, and estimates from surveys. Figures in the score range may need to be adjusted to reflect national or local norms and patterns of settlement.N/AN/AKey informantC2 Population information management, (R) Early Recovery, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW 7-6W7 Aggravating FactorsShelter ConditionsUnsanitary shelter conditions include the following: - lack of adequate ventilation, smoke pollution (e.g.HouseholdqualitativeN/AN/AN/ABaseline1) Less than 2 m2 of covered floor area per person and unsanitary shelter conditions 2) Less than 2 m2 of covered floor area per person or unsanitary shelter conditions 3) Between 2 m2 and 3.5 m2 of covered floor area per person and sanitary shelter conditions 4) At least 3.5m2 of covered floor area per person and sanitary shelter conditionsSeek data from key informants in the camp management and camp coordination cluster. Shelter conditions may be verified visually during a household survey, transect walk or other method. Where there is a large variation in shelter conditions for a population on the same site (for example, where some people have remained in their houses and others have moved into a school following a cyclone), an average score should be estimated for the total population concerned and a note made on the variation in conditions in the 'notes' box.N/AN/AKey informantS1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, (R) Early Recovery, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-1W1.1 Hygiene itemsProportion of households possessing soapUse of soap in handwashing helps to reduce diarrhoeal transmission. Although substitute such as ash may be as effective, soap encourages handwashing. Make sure it is present at household level is an important public health intervention. HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of households possessing soapN/ABaseline, OutputNoSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%It is important to see the soap to verify its presence in the household. If the respondent cannot locate and show the soap within a minute or so, this probably means that it has been borrowed from another household and should be discounted.N/ADepending on contexts and intercluster cooperation, this indicator can be easily adapted for schools / child friendly spaces, feeding centres, as well as for health facilitiesHousehold surveyH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, S2.2 Assistance, S2.1 Access, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-10W1.2 Hygiene PracticesProportion of households where food is safely stored, prepared and consumedSafe food practice involves three main precautions: (1) clean all surfaces in contact with food: wash hands before food preparation and eating, wash cooking and eating utensils, (2) use safe ingredients: use safe water and foodstuffs, wash fresh foods to be eaten raw, (3) store food safely: protect from flies, separate raw and uncooked foods, avoid storing leftovers or cooking a long time before eating. HouseholdPercentageTotal number of households in the sampleNb of household where all three precautions are metN/ABaseline, OutcomeYesSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%Ascertain where food and water for the kitchen are obtained from. Observe conditions in the cooking area and check whether sufficient utensils and cooking facilities are available to enable safe food practice. Cross-check with other indicators for data on handwashing and use of safe water. Questions to be asked: The last time you prepared food, what steps did you go through? Is there any food left from the last time you cooked? How long ago did you prepare the food? Can you show me where you keep this food? Observe if the containers are covered.N/AN/Ahousehold surveyN1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding, (R) Early Recovery, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, F7 Utilization, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-11W1.2 Hygiene PracticesProportion of pregnant women, children under five and other vulnerable people sleeping under effective insecticide-treated mosquito netsInsecticide-treated nets are nets for hanging over sleeping places, treated with an insecticide that repels, disables and kills mosquitoes coming into contact with them. Conventionally treated nets are effective if they have been retreated correctly within the last six months (or the last yea the case of some chemicals), not washed more than three times since the last treatment and without holes or tears.CommunityPercentageTotal number of pregnant women and children under five (or total number of people) in the households visitedNb of pregnant women and children under five (or number of people) reported to sleep under effective insecticide-treated net in the households visitedSADDBaseline, OutcomeWASH ClusterIn many contexts people will not have access to safe drinking water for part or all of the emergency period, for example when they rely on traditional unprotected water sources or when central systems for water treatment and distribution fail. In these cases, household (or point-of-use) treatment is important for ensuring that water is clean at the point of consumption. Surveyors should check to ensure that all the necessary supplies and equipment are present. For example, if bucket disinfection is used, an additional water container, usually a bucket with a lid, will be required for the process, in addition to containers for collection and storage. Model questions for survey: Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Did you treat the water that is being used in your household today? IF NO, why not? May I see the product or device please?It is important to see the nets installed in the household and check who actually sleeps under the nets. Possible questions: are there any pregnant women or under-five children in this household? IF 'YES', do you have a mosquito net in your household? IF 'YES', who usually sleeps under it? Can I see the net(s)? Observe the nets: is the net hanging above a bed / sleeping mat ? Does it hand in such a way that is do not allow gaps for mosquitoes to enter? Does the net see to be in good conditions ? Ask how old is the net / when was it last retreated?N/AN/Ahousehold surveyH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, (R) Early Recovery, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, S2 Shelter-related NFI, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-2W1.1 Hygiene itemsProportion of households possessing at least one clean narrow-necked or covered water container for drinking-waterNarrow-necked or covered water containers include jerricans and buckets with tight-filling lid and tap or pouring hole, so as to prevent people (including children) from putting their hands or contaminated objects into the container. Container should be clean in the sense of being free from visible dirt and should have been washed within the last week. HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of households possessing suitable water containerN/ABaseline, OutputNoSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%Before starting the survey, surveyors should look at the types of water containers typically being used and agree on what they will record as acceptable and unacceptable containers. If the container has not been washed within the past week but there is no visible dirt, which may often be the case if the container is relatively new or the water supply is clear and chlorinated, it should be recorded as clean. If it is observed that suitable water containers are present in the household but are not in use or are being used for other purposes such as storing food, surveyors should discuss this to find out why. Unless there are important reasons why the container is not used for drinking water then it should be recorded as present. For more rapid assessment, a survey of water containers brought to water-collection points could substitute for a household survey although here may not be a representative sample of water containers at any water point.N/AN/AHousehold surveyH3 Communicable diseases, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, S2.1 Access, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, S2.2 Assistance, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-3W1.1 Hygiene itemsAverage total capacity of water collection and storage containers at household levelWater collection and storage containers may include a range of sizes and types of container, including traditional containers, containers made from recycled materials and manufactured containers such as jerricans. Total capacity is the volume, in litres of all the water containers available for collection and storage in the household. HouseholdLitresN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutputNoSPHEREN/AEstimate the total capacity (volume) of the water containers for each household in the survey. Add all volumes recorded and divide by the number of households surveyedN/AN/AHousehold surveyH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, F7 Utilization
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-4W1.1 Hygiene itemsProportion of households with appropriate water treatment supplies and equipmentWater-treatment supplies and equipment includes chemicals for flocculation and disinfection, filter systems and equipment and fuel for boiling. Equipment and supplies are appropriate where they are already known by the population concerned or where they are simple enough for the people concerned to use them safely and effectively with the instructions provided. HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of households possessing appropriate water-treatment suppliesN/ABaseline, OutputSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%In many contexts people will not have access to safe drinking water for part or all of the emergency period, for example when they rely on traditional unprotected water sources or when central systems for water treatment and distribution fail. In these cases, household (or point-of-use) treatment is important for ensuring that water is clean at the point of consumption. Surveyors should check to ensure that all the necessary supplies and equipment are present. For example, if bucket disinfection is used, an additional water container, usually a bucket with a lid, will be required for the process, in addition to containers for collection and storage. Model questions for survey: Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Did you treat the water that is being used in your household today? IF NO, why not? May I see the product or device please?N/ADepending on contexts and intercluster cooperation, this indicator can be easily adapted for schools / child friendly spaces, feeding centres, as well as for health facilitiesHousehold surveyE1 Access and Learning Environment, F7 Utilization, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-5W1.1 Hygiene itemsAccessibility of appropriate sanitary protection materials for menstruation, and underwear, for women and girlsAppropriate sanitary protection materials are the materials that women and girls are accustomed to using in normal circumstances, in sufficient quantities and of an acceptable quality. Convenient and private places for washing and drying reusable cloths may also be necessary in some circumstances. Widespread lack of access means that it is difficult or impossible to get access to materials because they are simply not available or not affordable.IndividualYes/NoN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutputNoSPHEREN/ANormal methods for procuring sanitary protection materials for menstruation may be disrupted by a disaster and, where washable cloths are used, facilities for washing and drying cloths correctly and privately may be lacking. The resulting lack of access to appropriate materials and underwear may lead to situations of embarrassment and distress, affecting girls and women's access to education, economic or social activities. In some cases,it increases the risk of infectious disease through the reuse of incorrectly washed and dried cloths and underwear. In order to get information on the availability of sanitary protection and on the type of female hygiene material being used in the community, focus group discussions should be conducted with adolescent gitls and women of reproductive age, preferably broken down by age , including, where deemed important, female members of ethnic or religious minorities. Due to the sensitive nature of the issue, the consultation should be carried by a female staff member.N/AN/AFocus group discussionE1 Access and Learning Environment, S2.1 Access, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, S2.2 Assistance, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-6W1.1 Hygiene itemsProportion of households possessing one or more effective insecticide-treated mosquito netsInsecticide-treated nets are nets for hanging over sleeping places, treated with an insecticide that repels, disables and kills mosquitoes coming into contact with them. They may be of ordinary netting that is periodically retreated with insecticide, or they may be long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN's), with the insecticide within or bound around the fibres of the netting.HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of household possessing one or more effective insecticide-treated mosquito netsN/ABaseline, OutputSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%In malarial areas, people are able to protect themselves from malaria if they possess one or more effective nets for sleeping under. The most vulnerable people in the household are likely to be pregnant women and under-five children anybody whose immunity to malaria is suppressed by infectious disease or malnutrition. There should be sufficient net available to protect these vulnerable people as a minimum. WHO recommends full coverage for all people at risk of malaria where insecticide-treated nets are used for malaria prevention. Nets that are unused, including any that are in unopened packages, should be included. This indicator measures possession of nets, not use. Surveyors may wish to learn why nets are not used, in order to inform hygiene-promotion activities.N/AN/AFocus group discussionH3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-7W1.2 Hygiene PracticesProportion of households where only safe water is used for drinking and cookingSafe water is defined as water that: (1) comes from a protected and/or treated water supply and/or is treated at household or point of use; (2) is collected and stored in clean covered or narrow-necked containers; (3) is transferred safely during collection at the water point, when transferring from collection containers to storage, (4) containers and when transferring to containers used for drinking or cooking HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of households where all three criteria of safe water are metN/ABaseline, OutcomeYesSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%Ascertain where water for drinking and cooking is collected from and check whether or not any other water sources are used. Observe the presence, type and state of water containers, which should be cleaned at least once per week to be considered clean. Where household or point-of-use treatment is required, ask to see the water-treatment equipment a products used and, if chlorine-based treatment is used, check if there is a free chlorine residual in the water. Model questions for survey: What is the main source of drinking water for members of this household? Do you ever drink water from other sources? If YES, which ones? May I see the containers you use for collecting water, please? Do you store water for drinking in the household? If YES, may I see the containers, please? Observe and check if the containers are covered. Who takes water from these containers? How do you remove water from the drinking water container? What do you use to remove water? Are the water containers cleaned? When were they cleaned last? Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? When did you treat your drinking water the last time using this method? If water is treated by a method other than boiling, may I see the product or device? If blench, chlorine or tap water, test water for free chlorineN/AThe proportion of household is also an indicator on the proportion of people using safe water, indicator which can be then desagregated by sex and age.Household surveyC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, (R) Early Recovery, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, F7 Utilization, E1 Access and Learning Environment, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-8W1.2 Hygiene PracticesProportion of men, women, boys and girls who last defecated in a toilet (or whose faeces was last disposed of in a safe manner)A hygienic toilet is a facility that is designed, located, built and managed in such a way that users can conveniently ensure their excreta is contained, isolated and/or treated so that it is not a source of contamination. Typical hygienic toilets include standard types of pit latrine, composting toilets, chemical toilets and flushing toilets with water-borne sewerage or septic tanks, as well as more basic traditional systems used in low-density settlements. CommunityPercentageTotal Nb of individuals in the household sampleNb of individuals who last defecated in a hygienic toiletdisaggregated by sex and ageBaseline, OutcomeYesSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%It is difficult to get reliable information about the actual use of toilets during a household survey. It is useful to crosscheck survey data with voting proportions from a pocket chart exercise in a focus-group discussion where people can indicate privately what their hygiene practices are. Model questions for survey: 1) at present, where do adult members of this household go to the toilet? Where do children in this household go to the toilet? Are women's, girls' , boys'and men's practices different? If so, why (i.e. lack of hygiene awareness or protection & dignity issues preventing certain household members from using the latrines)? If children go to the toilet on the floor or in a nappy, what is done with the faeces? Observe if there is faces around the living areaN/AN/AHousehold surveyH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, (R) Early Recovery, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding
Water Sanitation HygieneW1-9W1.2 Hygiene PracticesProportion of men, women, boys and girls washing hands with water and soap or substitute after contact with faeces and before contact with food and waterThis indicator does not measure actual handwashing, as observed in practice or as a demonstration by respondents: this may not be feasible or appropriate in many emergency situations. Respondents' reports of having used soap or a substitute for handwashing at critical times in the past 24 hours is an alternative. Substitutes for soap are wood ash and clean soil or sand. Contact with faeces includes changing babies, picking up children's faeces and changing and cleaning people in care. CommunityPercentageTotal nb of people surveyed in the sampleNb of people reporting having washed their hands with soap or substitute after contact with faeces and before contact with food and waterdisaggregated by sex and ageBaseline, OutcomeYesSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%There are two elements to this indicator: 1. handwashing at critical times; 2. use of soap or substitute (which is a proxy for correct handwashing). A positive result should only be reported if both are mentioned by the respondent. Respondents should first be asked if they have soap or a substitute, then asked if they have used it over the previous hours and if so, what for. Surveyors should check answers against the following list of critical times for handwashing, without prompting the respondent there may be other times mentioned (like when washing clothes or dishes): 1) after defecating, 2) after handling children's faeces or wiping/washing a child's bottom, 3) after handling faeces or wiping/washing the bottom of a sick or elderly relative AND 1) before drawing water, 2) before preparing food 3) before feeding children or sick or elderly relative, 4) before eating. Model questions for survey: Do you have soap / ash / sand for handwashing? If YES, have you used it today or yesterday? If YES, what did you use it for? Probe to find out when.N/AH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding, (R) Early Recovery, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, E1 Access and Learning Environment, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, F7 Utilization
Water Sanitation HygieneW2-1W2.1 Access and Water QuantityQuantity of water used per person per day for drinking, cooking, hygiene and laundryThe quantity of water used per person per day includes all the water collected at public water points, water supplied via household connections water used for laundry or bathing collected from surface water sources or used in situ, rainwater collected at household level etc. Use for drinking, cooking and hygiene includes bathing and laundry but excludes use for livestock, gardening, construction etc. CommunityLitres per personn/an/aN/ABaseline, OutputNoSPHEREContext specificFor each household surveyed, estimate the total volume of the water used per day and ascertain the number of people that household. Add all the daily household use figures and divide by the total number of people belonging to the households in the survey. Alternatively, estimate the total volume of water used per day for each household surveyed, add all the daily household use figures and divide by an estimate of average household size in the population concerned. It is important to try to find out all the sources of water that are being used for drinking, cooking and hygiene, including those that are used at source (e.g. washing clothes at a river). For more rapid assessment, a survey among people at water-collection points could be used, though this may provide biased sample, for instance where surface water sources provide a substantial part of the water used or where some people do not have access to the water-collection points.N/AN/Ahousehold surveyC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, F7 Utilization, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW2-2W2.1 Access and Water QuantityLikelihood of a critical fall in the quantity of water available per day within the next monthIt is important to assess the likelihood of a critical fall (temporary or permanent) in water availability on the short term to determine whether or not action needs to be taken to secure supplies or to look for other alternatives to ensure that the population continues to have access to sufficient water for health and livelihoods CommunityVery likely / Somewhat Likely / Unlikelyn/an/aN/ABaselineNon/aA critical fall in water availability is defined as a fall that would lead to a reduction in the quantity of water used for drinking, cooking and hygiene below an acceptable level for protecting health. This may also involve a reduction in the quantity of water used for essential livelihoods activities. Water available is the quantity water per person per day that is potentially accessible to the population concerned. Availability may be reduced by events such as falling availability of local water resources at the end of the rainy season, mechanical, financial, logistics or other problems with a managed water-supply system, an increase in the population on sites, security incidents that interrupt a water-tankering operation etc.Published data such as hydrological and hydrogeological records, and programme reports may also be available.N/AKey informant, observation(R) Early Recovery, F7 Utilization, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW2-3W2.1 Access and Water QuantityAverage time required (minutes) for one water collection journey, including travel in each direction and queuingTo limit the amount of survey questions asked, it would be sufficient to inquire only about the source of the drinking-water and the time needed for the collection. This may be justified if it can be assumed that most households use the same source for drinking and nondrinking-water. If this is not the case, the source and the time needed to collect the water should be assessed in a separate set of questions because the amount of water not used for drinking determines how much water is available for hygiene purposes.HouseholdMinutesn/an/aSex and age disaggregation possibleBaseline, OutcomeNoSPHEREContext specificTo limit the amount of survey questions asked, it would be sufficient to inquire only about the source of the drinking-water and the time needed for the collection. This may be justified if it can be assumed that most households use the same source for drinking and nondrinking-water. If this is not the case, the source and the time needed to collect the water should be assessed in a separate set of questions because the amount of water not used for drinking determines how much water is available for hygiene purposes. For more rapid assessment, a survey among people at water-collection points could be used. Model questions for survey How long does it take you to go to your main water source, get water, and come back?N/AN/AHousehold surveyC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, F7 Utilization, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW2-4W2.2 Water QualityProportion of households with access to a source of safe drinking-waterSources of safe drinking-water include boreholes, protected wells and protected springs, adequately treated and prope distributed surface water and rainwater collected on clean surfaces and properly stored. Safe drinking-water is defined by the World Health Organization as water that 'does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages.HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of households with access to a source of safe drinking-waterN/ABaseline, OutcomeNoIn many contexts people will not have access to safe drinking water for part or all of the emergency period, for example when they rely on traditional unprotected water sources or when central systems for water treatment and distribution fail. In these cases, household (or point-of-use) treatment is important for ensuring that water is clean at the point of consumption. Surveyors should check to ensure that all the necessary supplies and equipment are present. For example, if bucket disinfection is used, an additional water container, usually a bucket with a lid, will be required for the process, in addition to containers for collection and storage. Model questions for survey: Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Did you treat the water that is being used in your household today? IF NO, why not? May I see the product or device please?It is important to establish in each household whether sufficient safe drinking-water is available for drinking and cooking for all household members. If this is not the case then the result should be recorded as negative. Ensure that respondents clearly identify water that is used for drinking and cooking. Water used solely for laundry and bathing may not need to be of the same quality. Check the water sources mentioned by the respondents in the survey to verify their condition. Where relevant and possible, carry out water-quality analysis and checking of treatment processes. Model questions for survey What is the main source of drinking-water for this household? Do you collect drinking-water from any other sources?Review Data from Joint monitoring Programme1) The proportion of household is also an indicator on the proportion of people with acces to a source of safe drinking water, indicator which can be then desagregated by sex and age. 2) Depending on contexts and intercluster cooperation, this indicator can be easily adapted for schools / child friendly spaces, feeding centres, as well as for health facilitieshousehold survey, direct observationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, F7 Utilization, (R) Early Recovery, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition, N2 Infant and Young Child Feeding
Water Sanitation HygieneW2-5W2.3 Water FacilitiesAccess to appropriate bathing facilitiesThis indicator is expressed in qualitative terms, but some quantitative data may be used, such as the number of people per public bathing cubicle or the number of households with a bathing place. CommunityNone / limited / sufficientN/AN/ADisagregation by sex of the # of communal bathing facilities availbale, respecting a ratio of 6 doors for women and 4 doors for menBaseline, OutcomeNoSPHEREContext specificAppropriate bathing facilities may include bathrooms, showers and other bathing areas at household level, or communal facilities where this is not possible or not the preferred option for the population. To be appropriate, they must be accessible to all users, provide sufficient privacy and safety, have a convenient supply of water and be easy to maintain a clean and hygienic state, including the correct disposal of wastewater. Communal facilities need to be separated by sex, respecting a ratio of 6 doors for women against 4 doors for men, differentiated with use of a pictogramm, lockable from the inside and with light. In order to be safe, their location and their design should be determined based on the needs expressed by the female and male users. Sufficient access is a level of access that allows people to bathe as frequently as they would under normal circumstanceN/AN/AKey informant, focus group, observationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, (R) Early Recovery, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1 Shelter, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW2-6W2.3 Water FacilitiesAccess to appropraite laundry facilitiesThis indicator is expressed in qualitative terms, but some quantitative data may be used, such as the number of people per public washing basin. The scoring range for this indicator only goes as far as '2', which reflects its relative lack of importance compared with most other indicators. CommunityNone / limited / sufficientN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutcomeNoSPHEREContext specificAppropriate laundry facilities may include equipment (buckets, basins etc.) at household level, suitable locations by the side of water bodies (avoiding the risk of contaminating drinking-water) where this is normal practice, or communal. Appropriate laundry facilities. To be appropriate, they must be accessible to all users, provide sufficient safety, have a convenient supply of water and be easy to maintain in a clean and hygienic state, including the correct disposal of wastewater. The issue of private laundry areas for women and girls to wash and dry under-garments and sanitary cloths is addressed in the following indicator: Accessibility of appropriate sanitary protection materials for menstruation, and underwear, for women and girls. Sufficient access is a level of access that allows people to wash clothes and bedding as frequently as they would under normal circumstances.N/AN/AKey informant, focus group, observationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, (R) Early Recovery, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW3-1W3.1 EnvironmentPresence of human faeces on the ground on and around the sitePresence should clearly be the result of recent scattered defecation by a significant number of people. One isolated stool does not constitute a substantial presence. CommunityYes/NoN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutcomeYesSPHERENo PresenceSurveyors should look for the obvious places where people may go to defecate on the ground. Faeces that were clear deposited more than a few days ago should not be counted; only recently deposited faeces indicate an ongoing problem of access to toilets. Organised open defecation areas that are too close to water sources and living areas or that do not provide adequate protection from contamination should be counted as substantial presence.N/AN/AObservationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, S1.1 Access, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW3-2W3.2 Toilet FacilitiesAverage number of users per functioning toiletA functioning toilet is one that is fully constructed, in working order, of a type and in a location acceptable to intended users. This definition excludes toilets that do not adequately protect users living areas, drinking-water sources and use from contamination, latrines that are full, toilets that are too dirty to use, toilets with broken superstructures, toilets that are inaccessible or located where people are embarrassed to use them etc. CommunityPerson per ToiletEstimated or counted number of functioning toiletsEstimated population at the sitePossible disaggregation by sex and ageBaseline, OutputYesSPHEREContext specificThe number of users per functioning toilet is a crude indicator of the extent to which people have access to toilets, which is important for preventing the spread of faecal diseases. This indicator does not identify actual access to the toilets availableN/AN/AKey informant, observationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW3-3W3.2 Toilet FacilitiesProportion of households with access to a functioning toiletA functioning toilet is one that is fully constructed, in working order, of a type and in a location acceptable to intended users. This definition excludes toilets that do not adequately protect users living areas, drinking-water sources and use from contamination, latrines that are full, toilets that are too dirty to use, toilets with broken superstructures, toilets that are inaccessible or located where people are embarrassed to use them etc. Access is defined by the intended users of the toilets.Household and FacilitiesPercentageTotal number of households in the same locationNb of households reporting access to a functioning toiletPossible disaggregation by sex and ageBaseline, OutcomeYesSPHEREIn many contexts people will not have access to safe drinking water for part or all of the emergency period, for example when they rely on traditional unprotected water sources or when central systems for water treatment and distribution fail. In these cases, household (or point-of-use) treatment is important for ensuring that water is clean at the point of consumption. Surveyors should check to ensure that all the necessary supplies and equipment are present. For example, if bucket disinfection is used, an additional water container, usually a bucket with a lid, will be required for the process, in addition to containers for collection and storage. Model questions for survey: Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Did you treat the water that is being used in your household today? IF NO, why not? May I see the product or device please?It is important to measure whether or not people in the population concerned actually have access to a functioning toilet. Access may be limited by a number of technical and social reasons. This indicator describes the extent to which people can relieve themselves comfortably and with dignity, and the extent to which they can avoid contaminating the living environment and drinking-water sources. Where communal latrines are in place, it is advisible to consult separatly women and men about their access to functioning toilets. Model questions for survey Do all the members of this household have access to a functioning toilet? IF NOT, how many household members do have access, and how many do not for any reason?Review Data from Joint monitoring Programme1) The proportion of household is also an indicator on the proportion of people with access to a functioning toilet, indicator which can be then desagregated by sex and age. 2) Depending on contexts and intercluster cooperation, this indicator can be easily adapted for schools / child friendly spaces, feeding centres, as well as for health facilities. For these facilities, it is of the utmost importance to disagragate data per sex.household surveyC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW3-4W3.2 Toilet FacilitiesProportion of toilets with functioning and convenient handwashing facilitiesFunctioning handwashing facilities consist of an adequate and continuous supply of water, with means to wet hands before using soap and then rinse them in clean water after. Convenient handwashing facilities mean that they are located next to the toilet, or at the household where they can be reached directly and within a matter of seconds from the toilet CommunityPercentageTotal nb of toilets surveyedNb of toilets with functioning and convenient handwashing facilities (or observed during toilet survey or reported during household survey)N/AOutputNoSPHEREIn many contexts people will not have access to safe drinking water for part or all of the emergency period, for example when they rely on traditional unprotected water sources or when central systems for water treatment and distribution fail. In these cases, household (or point-of-use) treatment is important for ensuring that water is clean at the point of consumption. Surveyors should check to ensure that all the necessary supplies and equipment are present. For example, if bucket disinfection is used, an additional water container, usually a bucket with a lid, will be required for the process, in addition to containers for collection and storage. Model questions for survey: Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Did you treat the water that is being used in your household today? IF NO, why not? May I see the product or device please?If different household members use different toilets, presence or absence of handwashing facilities should be recorded for each toilet used. Only the main toilet used by each household member should be included in the survey (e.g. if people use a household toilet but sometimes use a public toilet in the market, only the household toilet should be included). Toilet survey (observation) : Where predominantly or exclusively public or communal toilets are used, it may be more convenient to do a survey of toilets and inspect them to check the presence or absence and condition of handwashing facilities. Model questions for survey IF HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS REPORT HAVING ACCESS TO A FUNCTIONING TOILET Is there a place for you to wash your hands after using the toilet? Is there always soap and water available? How long does it take to go from the toilet to the place for washing hands?N/AN/Ahousehold surveyC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, (R) Early Recovery, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW3-5W3.2 Toilet FacilitiesProportion of toilets that are cleanClean toilets are those that are free from faeces inside and around the structure itself, including the squatting plate. Toilets where there are traces of faeces, urine or anal cleansing materials from careless use or incomplete cleaning should be considered clean, as opposed to those with stools inside or outside. Toilets that have a very strong bad smell inside may also be considered dirty by users and if so should be defined as dirty for this indicator. CommunityPercentageTotal nb of toilets surveyedNb of clean toiletsN/AOutputNoSPHEREIn many contexts people will not have access to safe drinking water for part or all of the emergency period, for example when they rely on traditional unprotected water sources or when central systems for water treatment and distribution fail. In these cases, household (or point-of-use) treatment is important for ensuring that water is clean at the point of consumption. Surveyors should check to ensure that all the necessary supplies and equipment are present. For example, if bucket disinfection is used, an additional water container, usually a bucket with a lid, will be required for the process, in addition to containers for collection and storage. Model questions for survey: Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? IF YES, what do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Did you treat the water that is being used in your household today? IF NO, why not? May I see the product or device please?Cleanliness of toilets can be checked during a household survey or a dedicated toilet survey (particularly where there are many public toilets not associated with specific households). Toilets that are clean because they are clearly not in use should not be included in the sampleN/AN/AObservationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW4-1W4 Vector ControlDegree of vector-borne disease riskMalaria: Malaria is one of the major causes of disease and loss of life in emergencies. This indicator is designed to estimate the risk of malaria to the population concerned in general terms, taking into account the following factors: 1) whether or not the area is endemic for malaria; 2) whether or not it is the malaria season; 3) the degree of immunity of the population; 4) the adequacy of measures in place to control malaria transmission.CommunityHigh / Not HighN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutcomeSPHEREN/ASeek data from health professionals, vector-control specialists and malaria specialists in ministry of health, NGOs, Red Cross/Red Crescent, WHO etc.Explore prevalence and incidence ratesN/AKey informant, ObservationH1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, E1 Access and Learning Environment, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW4-2W4 Vector ControlProportion of households adopting measures to reduce biological vector-borne disease riskThis indicator can be seen as a compilation of several indicators related to hygiene practices, mainly, the indicators W1-6, W1-8, W1-10 and W1-11. If , in an household, these four indicators are met, it can be considered, that the measures to reduce biological vector-bonre disease risks have been taken. HouseholdPercentageTotal nb of households in the sampleNb of households adopting measures to reduce biological vector-borne disease riskN/ABaseline, OutputSPHEREFollow-up of trends. Target: 100%See general guidance for indicators W1-6, W1-8, W1-10 and W1-11.N/AN/Ahousehold survey, focus group, observation(R) Early Recovery, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, E1 Access and Learning Environment, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW5-1W5 Solid Waste ManagementPresence of solid waste on and around the siteSubstantial presence is a somewhat subjective judgment, but to classify as such, it should clearly indicate a pattern of habitual disposal of solid waste in an uncontrolled way, or in a controlled but unsafe way (for example, piles of waste to accumulate at street corners). A few scattered plastic bags do not constitute a substantial presence. If the amount of solid waste on the ground has increased significantly due to the crisis, this should also be considered. CommunitySubtantial presence / No Substantial PresenceN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutcomeSPHEREN/AThe presence of substantial quantities of solid waste on the ground, particularly near living areas and drinking-water sources creates a risk to public health through faecal contamination (as solid waste may often contain children's faeces and animal faeces), the creation of vector breeding sites (for mosquitoes, rats, flies etc.), fire hazard etc. The distance of 30 m from shelters and water points reflects established guidance on minimum safe distances for protection of drinking-water sources from faecal contamination.N/AN/AObservationC3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health
Water Sanitation HygieneW5-2W5 Solid Waste ManagementPresence and effectiveness of a solid-waste management systemAn effective solid-waste management system is one that ensures the following: 1)people have a convenient and hygienic place to deposit waste (at household level or in public spaces such as mark distribution centres etc.); 2) waste does not create a significant nuisance or health risk during the period before collection; 3) waste is collected regularly (at least weekly); 4) waste is disposed of at a site and in a way that does not create a nuisance or a health risk.CommunityFully Operational / Partly Operational / Not OperationalN/AN/AN/ABaseline, OutputSPHEREN/AHumanitarian crises may create situations where large quantities of waste are not managed, either because the wastemanagement system is damaged or destroyed or because people are displaced into settlements where there are not established waste management systems. In dense, large settlements, this may quickly cause a build-up of waste in the settlement, with associated public health risks.N/AN/AKey Informant, Focus Group, Observation(R) Early Recovery, R2 Basic Infrastructure Restoration, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance
Water Sanitation HygieneW8-1W8 WASH Programme Design and ImplementationAll groups within the affected population have equitable access to WASH facilities and servicesGroups within the affected population may include, but not be limited to, men and women of different ages, children, people from different social, economic, livelihoods and ethnic groups, people living with HIV/AIDS, people with chronic illness, single-headed households, child-headed households and people with disabilities. Different groups may be defined by their different needs, vulnerabilities and capacities.Met/ Partly Met/ Not NetN/AN/ABreakdown of single sex group discussions conducted with women/girls, boys/men and with vulnerable groups of the populationBaseline, OutcomeYesSPHEREN/AData should be collected through focus-group discussions with different groups from the population concerned, and from key informants in the Camp Coordination and Camp Management cluster and other clusters. This qualitative indicator requires careful measurement, including discussion with a range of informants to make an objective judgment. It is important to take into consideration how conditions change over time, if this indicator is measured during monitoring or periodic review processes, and use the results at local level to encourage improvement. This indicator is important to measure during assessment as well as monitoring, to identify any groups that are exclude from access to WASH facilities and services and who may therefore be particularly at risk.N/AN/AKey informant, focus groupC1 Community engagement and self-empowerment, C3 Protection and services monitoring and coordination, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, E1 Access and Learning Environment, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, P1 (PC) Child Protection, P2 (PG) Gender-Based Violence, PG6 Prevention Programming, P3 (PL) Housing Land and Property, P5 Vulnerability, P6 Displacement and Return, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW8-2W8 WASH Programme Design and ImplementationThe WASH response includes effective mechanisms for representative and participatory input from all users at all phasesRelevant mechanisms include the use of participatory assessment methods, seeking an understanding of the social diversity of the affected population and the interests of key stakeholders, representation arrangements such as community WASH committees that reflect the range of needs, vulnerabilities and capacities of different groups in the population, and joint planning and monitoring of facilities and services. All phases of the WASH response include the following: assessment, planning, design and location of facilities, training, monitoring and evaluation.CommunityMet/ Partly Met/ Not NetN/AN/ANumber of women, girls, boys and men consulted and/or represented in WASH committeesOutcomeYesSPHEREN/AData should be collected through focus-group discussions with different groups from the population concerned, and from key informants in the Camp Coordination and Camp Management cluster and other clusters. This qualitative indicator requires careful measurement, including discussion with a range of informants to make an objective judgment. It is important to take into consideration how conditions change over time, if this indicator is measured during monitoring or periodic review processes, and use the results at local level to encourage improvemenN/AThis indicator allows monitoring of equitable access, participation and distinct outputs of the assistance provided:Key informant, focus groupC1 Community engagement and self-empowerment, C3 Protection and services monitoring and coordination, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, C3.9 Service Provision - WASH &/or Shelter, E1 Access and Learning Environment, (R) Early Recovery, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, S2.1 Access, S2.2 Assistance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, P1 (PC) Child Protection, P2 (PG) Gender-Based Violence, PG6 Prevention Programming, P3 (PL) Housing Land and Property, P5 Vulnerability, P6 Displacement and Return, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition
Water Sanitation HygieneW8-3W8 WASH Programme Design and ImplementationThe affected population takes responsibility for the management and maintenance of facilities as appropriate, and all groups contribute equitablyWhere possible, it is good practice to form water and/or sanitation committees, made up of representatives from the various user groups and half of whose members are women. The functions of these committees are to manage the communal facilities such as water points, public toilets and washing areas, be involved in hygiene promotion activities and also act as a mechanism for ensuring representation and promoting sustainability.CommunityMet/ Partly Met/ Not NetN/AN/Adisaggregated by sex and ageBaseline, OutcomeNoSPHEREN/AData should be collected through focus-group discussions with different groups from the population concerned, and from key informants in the Camp Coordination and Camp Management cluster and other clusters. This qualitative indicator requires careful measurement, including discussion with a range of informants to make an objective judgment. It is important to take into consideration how conditions change over time, if this indicator is measured during monitoring or periodic review processes, and use the results at local level to encourage improvement.N/AN/AKey informant, focus groupC1 Community engagement and self-empowerment, C3 Protection and services monitoring and coordination, C3.2 Service Provision - WASH, E1 Access and Learning Environment, (R) Early Recovery, R3 Capacity Building, R4 Governance, S1.1 Access, S1.2 Assistance, H1 General clinical services & essential trauma care, H3 Communicable diseases, H6 Environmental Health, P1 (PC) Child Protection, P2 (PG) Gender-Based Violence, PG6 Prevention Programming, P3 (PL) Housing Land and Property, P5 Vulnerability, P6 Displacement and Return, N1 Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition