Indicators

Global cluster Code Sub-domain Title Description / Rationale
Water Sanitation Hygiene W2-5 W2.3 Water Facilities Access to appropriate bathing facilities

This indicator is expressed in qualitative terms, but some quantitative data may be used, such as the number of people per public bathing cubicle or the number of households with a bathing place.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W2-6 W2.3 Water Facilities Access to appropraite laundry facilities

This indicator is expressed in qualitative terms, but some quantitative data may be used, such as the number of people per public washing basin. The scoring range for this indicator only goes as far as '2', which reflects its relative lack of importance compared with most other indicators.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W3-1 W3.1 Environment Presence of human faeces on the ground on and around the site

Presence should clearly be the result of recent scattered defecation by a significant number of people. One isolated stool does not constitute a substantial presence.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W3-2 W3.2 Toilet Facilities Average number of users per functioning toilet

A functioning toilet is one that is fully constructed, in working order, of a type and in a location acceptable to intended users. This definition excludes toilets that do not adequately protect users living areas, drinking-water sources and use from contamination, latrines that are full, toilets that are too dirty to use, toilets with broken superstructures, toilets that are inaccessible or located where people are embarrassed to use them etc.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W3-3 W3.2 Toilet Facilities Proportion of households with access to a functioning toilet

A functioning toilet is one that is fully constructed, in working order, of a type and in a location acceptable to intended users. This definition excludes toilets that do not adequately protect users living areas, drinking-water sources and use from contamination, latrines that are full, toilets that are too dirty to use, toilets with broken superstructures, toilets that are inaccessible or located where people are embarrassed to use them etc. Access is defined by the intended users of the toilets. If they report that all household members can use a clean and private functioning toilet when they need, this means they have access to a functioning toilet.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W3-4 W3.2 Toilet Facilities Proportion of toilets with functioning and convenient handwashing facilities

Functioning handwashing facilities consist of an adequate and continuous supply of water, with means to wet hands before using soap and then rinse them in clean water after. Convenient handwashing facilities mean that they are located next to the toilet, or at the household where they can be reached directly and within a matter of seconds from the toilet

Water Sanitation Hygiene W3-5 W3.2 Toilet Facilities Proportion of toilets that are clean

Clean toilets are those that are free from faeces inside and around the structure itself, including the squatting plate. Toilets where there are traces of faeces, urine or anal cleansing materials from careless use or incomplete cleaning should be considered clean, as opposed to those with stools inside or outside. Toilets that have a very strong bad smell inside may also be considered dirty by users and if so should be defined as dirty for this indicator.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W4-1 W4 Vector Control Degree of vector-borne disease risk

Malaria: Malaria is one of the major causes of disease and loss of life in emergencies. This indicator is designed to estimate the risk of malaria to the population concerned in general terms, taking into account the following factors: 1) whether or not the area is endemic for malaria; 2) whether or not it is the malaria season; 3) the degree of immunity of the population; 4) the adequacy of measures in place to control malaria transmission. Control measures include rapid and effective management of malaria cases and prevention of transmission through the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, the use of repellents, protecting shelters, indoor residual spraying and control of breeding sites. Mosquito-borne diseases other than malaria: diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever, and other vector-borne diseases such as river blindness and the plague, may be a danger to public health in some circumstances. This indicator is designed to estimate the risk of such diseases to the population concerned in general terms, taking into account the following factors: 1) whether or not the area is endemic for the disease; 2) whether or not it is the season during which the disease is normally transmitted; 3) the degree of immunity of the population; 4) the adequacy of measures in place to control disease transmission. Fly-borne diseases: There is some evidence to suggest that non-biting flies (houseflies, blowflies and several other species) are involved in the transmission of disease by mechanically transferring germs from one place to another, and that the higher the density of flies in a settlement, the greater the intensity of disease transmission. Diseases that may be transmitted by flies include diarrhoeas and other faecal-oral diseases such as typhoid, as well a trachoma. For all of these diseases, flies are just one of a number of pathways of transmission. The density of flies is hard to define in absolute terms. People in the population concerned may report a high (or highest than normal) fly density, though this needs to be interpreted in the context of normal local conditions.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W4-2 W4 Vector Control Proportion of households adopting measures to reduce biological vector-borne disease risk

This indicator can be seen as a compilation of several indicators related to hygiene practices, mainly, the indicators W1-6, W1-8, W1-10 and W1-11. If , in an household, these four indicators are met, it can be considered, that the measures to reduce biological vector-bonre disease risks have been taken.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W5-1 W5 Solid Waste Management Presence of solid waste on and around the site

Substantial presence is a somewhat subjective judgment, but to classify as such, it should clearly indicate a pattern of habitual disposal of solid waste in an uncontrolled way, or in a controlled but unsafe way (for example, piles of waste to accumulate at street corners). A few scattered plastic bags do not constitute a substantial presence. If the amount of solid waste on the ground has increased significantly due to the crisis, this should also be considered.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W5-2 W5 Solid Waste Management Presence and effectiveness of a solid-waste management system

An effective solid-waste management system is one that ensures the following: 1)people have a convenient and hygienic place to deposit waste (at household level or in public spaces such as mark distribution centres etc.); 2) waste does not create a significant nuisance or health risk during the period before collection; 3) waste is collected regularly (at least weekly); 4) waste is disposed of at a site and in a way that does not create a nuisance or a health risk. If one or more of these steps is not functioning correctly for all or part of the site, the system may be defined as not meeting current needs. A system may be not operational because of lack of staff, lack of vehicles, lack of money or other resources, or because of other constraints such as insecurity or lack of access.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W8-1 W8 WASH Programme Design and Implementation All groups within the affected population have equitable access to WASH facilities and services

Groups within the affected population may include, but not be limited to, men and women of different ages, children, people from different social, economic, livelihoods and ethnic groups, people living with HIV/AIDS, people with chronic illness, single-headed households, child-headed households and people with disabilities. Different groups may be defined by their different needs, vulnerabilities and capacities. The point is not to carry out an exhaustive breakdown of all the different groups within the population concerned, but to check if any particular group of people is excluded from the WASH response, fully or in part, and to correct the situation if that is the case.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W8-2 W8 WASH Programme Design and Implementation The WASH response includes effective mechanisms for representative and participatory input from all users at all phases

Relevant mechanisms include the use of participatory assessment methods, seeking an understanding of the social diversity of the affected population and the interests of key stakeholders, representation arrangements such as community WASH committees that reflect the range of needs, vulnerabilities and capacities of different groups in the population, and joint planning and monitoring of facilities and services. All phases of the WASH response include the following: assessment, planning, design and location of facilities, training, monitoring and evaluation. This indicator is partly met where mechanisms are still in the process of being established or are only established to a limited extent (for example where water committees have been established but they are not representative or where women's hygiene groups are in operation but they are used to provide cleaning services and not as a forum for discussion and decision).

Water Sanitation Hygiene W8-3 W8 WASH Programme Design and Implementation The affected population takes responsibility for the management and maintenance of facilities as appropriate, and all groups contribute equitably

Where possible, it is good practice to form water and/or sanitation committees, made up of representatives from the various user groups and half of whose members are women. The functions of these committees are to manage the communal facilities such as water points, public toilets and washing areas, be involved in hygiene promotion activities and also act as a mechanism for ensuring representation and promoting sustainability. In addition, encouraging people from the affected population to take active responsibility for the management and maintenance of facilities helps in the process of social recovery and contributes to sustainability.