Indicators

Global cluster Code Sub-domain Title Description / Rationale
Food Security, Health, Logistics, Protection, Nutrition, Water Sanitation Hygiene, Camp Coordination / Management, Education, Emergency Shelter and NFI, Emergency Telecommunications, Early Recovery AAP-1 Feedback Mechanisms Number of feedback received (including complaints) which have been acted upon

Feedback mechanisms provide a means for all those affected to comment on and thus indirectly influence programme planning and implementation (see HAP’s ‘participation’ benchmark). They include focus group discussions, surveys, interviews and meetings on ‘lessons learnt’ with a representative sample of all the affected population (see ECB’s Good Enough Guide for tools and Guidance notes 3–4). The findings and the agency’s actions in response to feedback should be systematically shared with the affected population. (Sphere Core Standard 1, Guidance Note 2)

Possible examples:

  • % of women/girls and % of men/boys satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project
  • # of text messages received daily and acted upon according to the agreed/established procedures 
Food Security, Health, Logistics, Protection, Nutrition, Water Sanitation Hygiene, Camp Coordination / Management, Education, Emergency Shelter and NFI, Emergency Telecommunications, Early Recovery AAP-2 Sharing Information Number of information products distributed to the affected population through a variety of mechanisms on humanitarian program planning, functioning and progress

People have a right to accurate and updated information about actions taken on their behalf. Information can reduce anxiety and is an essential foundation of community responsibility and ownership. At a minimum, clusters and agencies should provide a description of the cluster's role and responsibilities, agency’s mandate and project(s), the population’s entitlements and rights, and when and where to access assistance (see HAP’s ‘sharing information’ benchmark). (Sphere Core Standard 1, Guidance Note 4)

Possible examples:

  • # of ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ documents about the work of the cluster disseminated
  • # of talkback radio programmes joined to explain response planning and selection criteria of cluster to affected population 
Food Security, Health, Logistics, Protection, Nutrition, Water Sanitation Hygiene, Camp Coordination / Management, Education, Emergency Shelter and NFI, Emergency Telecommunications, Early Recovery AAP-3 Participation Number of persons consulted (disaggregated by sex/age) before designing a program/project [alternatively: while implementing the program/project]

Participation in design of assessments, programmes, evaluations etc, means that a selected segment(s) of the affected populaiton have a direct influence on decision making.  Measures should be taken to ensure the participation of members of all groups of affected people – young and old, men and women. Special efforts should be made to include people who are not well represented, are marginalised (e.g. by ethnicity or religion) or otherwise ‘invisible’ (e.g. housebound or in an institution). The participation of youth and children should be promoted so far as it is in their own best interest and measures taken to ensure that they are not exposed to abuse or harm. (Sphere Core Standard 1, Guidance Note 3)

Possible examples:

  • # of focus group discussions organized with affected girls, women, boys and men that have been used to influence decisions made on design of assessments, programmes, standards, selection criteria, etc.
  • % of female and % of male parents actively participating in the conception and implementation of M&E of education in emergencies services. 
Water Sanitation Hygiene W 6-1 W6 Drainage Presence of stagnant water on and around the site

A substantial presence may be a large body of standing water such as a pond, a high density of small areas such as water standing in tyre tracks. If the standing water is contaminated wastewater then even small quantities should be considered as significant. Small puddles of rainwater that dry up after a day or so should not be considered a substantial presence.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W 7-1 W7 Aggravating Factors Presence of faecal-oral diseases

Faecal-oral diseases are those diseases that are transmitted by faecal material passing into the mouth, principally via contaminated water, hands and food, and are prevented by improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene. The most important of these diseases in most emergencies are various diarrhoeal diseases. Diseases with outbreak risk are those that may spread rapidly and require a rapid response to protect public health. They include cholera, typhoid, shigellosis, and hepatitis A and E. An outbreak, or epidemic, is the occurrence of cases of an illness clearly in excess of what is normally expected in a given area during a given period. Health professionals should be able to define what constitutes an outbreak or epidemy in a specific context for a given disease, given knowledge of previous disease patterns in the same area. The words outbreak and epidemic may have specific and different meanings in some countries but are often used interchangeable The disease incidence rate is the number of new cases for a given population per unit of time (e.g. a week). Health professionals should be able to judge whether incidence rates are high, stable or rising.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W 7-2 W7 Aggravating Factors Extent of global acute malnutrition and food insecurity

The global acute malnutrition rate is the percentage of under-five children below 80% (or below -2Z scores) weight for height and/or with oedema. In the acute stages of an emergency this rate may be estimated approximately in a rapid nutritional assessment with a MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) survey by nutrition staff. Acute food insecurity: A population or livelihood group is considered acutely food insecure if: 1) people experience a large reduction in their major source of food and are unable to make up the difference through copying strategies; 2) the prevalence of malnutrition is abnormally high for the time of year, and this cannot be accounted for by either health or care factors; 3) a large proportion of the population uses marginal or unsustainable coping strategies; 4) people use 'coping' strategies that are damaging their livelihoods in the longer term, or incur some other unacceptable cost, such as acting illegally or immorally. There is no established equivalence between the levels of global acute malnutrition and acute food security used in the scoring system for this indicator. They are used here to indicate food and nutrition problems in very broad terms for informing analysis within the WASH cluster. Very High: Global acute malnutrition >14% among under-fives and/or acute food insecurity for >75% of the population. High: Global acute malnutrition 10-14% among under-fives and/or acute food insecurity for 51 75% of the population. Moderate: Global acute malnutrition 5-9% among under-fives and/or acute food insecurity for 25- 50% of the population. Low: Global acute malnutrition <5% among under-fives and acute food insecurity for <25% of the population

Water Sanitation Hygiene W 7-3 W7 Aggravating Factors Access to health service

Health services are preventive and clinical services that aim to address the main causes of excess mortality and morbidity present in the given context. Access is the ability of the affected population to use to, or be covered by, those services. This may be limited by the capacity of health services (human resources, supplies and equipment, systems and procedures) in relation to the population to be served, and by distance, cost, social exclusion, lack of information etc. An acceptable situation is one in which the capacity of health services and access to those services are such that etc mortality and morbidity can be avoided.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W 7-4 W7 Aggravating Factors Density of settlement in m2 of total site area per person

The total site area per person includes shelter plots, and the space needed for roads, footpaths, schools, sanitation, firebreaks, markets, distribution areas etc. In longer-term settlements, space for gardening is also included

Water Sanitation Hygiene W 7-5 W7 Aggravating Factors Nb of people on the site

The number of people on the site is the number of people residing continuously at the site and does not include people who may be registered at the site but who are not physically present, as in the case of a village with scattered outlying houses.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W 7-6 W7 Aggravating Factors Shelter Conditions

Unsanitary shelter conditions include the following: - lack of adequate ventilation, smoke pollution (e.g. from indoor cooking); - inadequate insulation and lack of heating in cold climates, inadequate protection from the sun, inadequate protection from the wind, leaking structures;- infestation by pests and disease vectors (rats, mosquitoes, cockroaches etc.); - lack of basic amenities such as bedding, storage containers etc.; - accident hazards such as unprotected stairwells in multi-storey buildings and lack of structural safety; - lack of privacy (particularly in collective shelters with inadequate partitions between family or household areas) and of personal security.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-1 W1.1 Hygiene items Proportion of households possessing soap

Use of soap in handwashing helps to reduce diarrhoeal transmission. Although substitute such as ash may be as effective, soap encourages handwashing. Make sure it is present at household level is an important public health intervention.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-10 W1.2 Hygiene Practices Proportion of households where food is safely stored, prepared and consumed

Safe food practice involves three main precautions: (1) clean all surfaces in contact with food: wash hands before food preparation and eating, wash cooking and eating utensils, (2) use safe ingredients: use safe water and foodstuffs, wash fresh foods to be eaten raw, (3) store food safely: protect from flies, separate raw and uncooked foods, avoid storing leftovers or cooking a long time before eating.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-11 W1.2 Hygiene Practices Proportion of pregnant women, children under five and other vulnerable people sleeping under effective insecticide-treated mosquito nets

Insecticide-treated nets are nets for hanging over sleeping places, treated with an insecticide that repels, disables and kills mosquitoes coming into contact with them. Conventionally treated nets are effective if they have been retreated correctly within the last six months (or the last yea the case of some chemicals), not washed more than three times since the last treatment and without holes or tears. LLIN's are effective if they are not older, and have not been washed more often, than recommended by the manufacturer (commonly no more than 20 washes and no more than 3 years old) and are without large holes or tears. Nets should a be of a size and shape that allows them to be hung over the bedding used. Nets are only effective if they are hung correctly, in a way that does not allow gaps through which mosquitoes can enter.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-2 W1.1 Hygiene items Proportion of households possessing at least one clean narrow-necked or covered water container for drinking-water

Narrow-necked or covered water containers include jerricans and buckets with tight-filling lid and tap or pouring hole, so as to prevent people (including children) from putting their hands or contaminated objects into the container. Container should be clean in the sense of being free from visible dirt and should have been washed within the last week.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-3 W1.1 Hygiene items Average total capacity of water collection and storage containers at household level

Water collection and storage containers may include a range of sizes and types of container, including traditional containers, containers made from recycled materials and manufactured containers such as jerricans. Total capacity is the volume, in litres of all the water containers available for collection and storage in the household.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-4 W1.1 Hygiene items Proportion of households with appropriate water treatment supplies and equipment

Water-treatment supplies and equipment includes chemicals for flocculation and disinfection, filter systems and equipment and fuel for boiling. Equipment and supplies are appropriate where they are already known by the population concerned or where they are simple enough for the people concerned to use them safely and effectively with the instructions provided.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-5 W1.1 Hygiene items Accessibility of appropriate sanitary protection materials for menstruation, and underwear, for women and girls

Appropriate sanitary protection materials are the materials that women and girls are accustomed to using in normal circumstances, in sufficient quantities and of an acceptable quality. Convenient and private places for washing and drying reusable cloths may also be necessary in some circumstances. Widespread lack of access means that it is difficult or impossible to get access to materials because they are simply not available or not affordable. Some lack of access means that it is generally possible to procure materials but that this is significantly more difficult than before the crisis or that some groups of women and girls cannot procure suitable materials.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-6 W1.1 Hygiene items Proportion of households possessing one or more effective insecticide-treated mosquito nets

Insecticide-treated nets are nets for hanging over sleeping places, treated with an insecticide that repels, disables and kills mosquitoes coming into contact with them. They may be of ordinary netting that is periodically retreated with insecticide, or they may be long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN's), with the insecticide within or bound around the fibres of the netting. Conventionally treated nets are effective if they have been retreated correctly within the last six months (or the last year the case of some chemicals), not washed more than three times since the last treatment and without holes or tears. LLIN's are effective if they are not older, and have not been washed more often, than recommended by the manufacturer (commonly no more than 20 washes and no more than 3 years old) and are without large holes or tears. Nets should be of a size and shape that allows them to be hung over the bedding used.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-7 W1.2 Hygiene Practices Proportion of households where only safe water is used for drinking and cooking

Safe water is defined as water that: (1) comes from a protected and/or treated water supply and/or is treated at household or point of use; (2) is collected and stored in clean covered or narrow-necked containers; (3) is transferred safely during collection at the water point, when transferring from collection containers to storage, (4) containers and when transferring to containers used for drinking or cooking

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-8 W1.2 Hygiene Practices Proportion of men, women, boys and girls who last defecated in a toilet (or whose faeces was last disposed of in a safe manner)

A hygienic toilet is a facility that is designed, located, built and managed in such a way that users can conveniently ensure their excreta is contained, isolated and/or treated so that it is not a source of contamination. Typical hygienic toilets include standard types of pit latrine, composting toilets, chemical toilets and flushing toilets with water-borne sewerage or septic tanks, as well as more basic traditional systems used in low-density settlements.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W1-9 W1.2 Hygiene Practices Proportion of men, women, boys and girls washing hands with water and soap or substitute after contact with faeces and before contact with food and water

This indicator does not measure actual handwashing, as observed in practice or as a demonstration by respondents: this may not be feasible or appropriate in many emergency situations. Respondents' reports of having used soap or a substitute for handwashing at critical times in the past 24 hours is an alternative. Substitutes for soap are wood ash and clean soil or sand. Contact with faeces includes changing babies, picking up children's faeces and changing and cleaning people in care.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W2-1 W2.1 Access and Water Quantity Quantity of water used per person per day for drinking, cooking, hygiene and laundry

The quantity of water used per person per day includes all the water collected at public water points, water supplied via household connections water used for laundry or bathing collected from surface water sources or used in situ, rainwater collected at household level etc. Use for drinking, cooking and hygiene includes bathing and laundry but excludes use for livestock, gardening, construction etc.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W2-2 W2.1 Access and Water Quantity Likelihood of a critical fall in the quantity of water available per day within the next month

It is important to assess the likelihood of a critical fall (temporary or permanent) in water availability on the short term to determine whether or not action needs to be taken to secure supplies or to look for other alternatives to ensure that the population continues to have access to sufficient water for health and livelihoods

Water Sanitation Hygiene W2-3 W2.1 Access and Water Quantity Average time required (minutes) for one water collection journey, including travel in each direction and queuing

To limit the amount of survey questions asked, it would be sufficient to inquire only about the source of the drinking-water and the time needed for the collection. This may be justified if it can be assumed that most households use the same source for drinking and nondrinking-water. If this is not the case, the source and the time needed to collect the water should be assessed in a separate set of questions because the amount of water not used for drinking determines how much water is available for hygiene purposes. For more rapid assessment, a survey among people at water-collection points could be used.

Water Sanitation Hygiene W2-4 W2.2 Water Quality Proportion of households with access to a source of safe drinking-water

Sources of safe drinking-water include boreholes, protected wells and protected springs, adequately treated and prope distributed surface water and rainwater collected on clean surfaces and properly stored. Safe drinking-water is defined by the World Health Organization as water that 'does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages. Those at greatest risk of waterborne disease are infants and young children, people who are debilitated or living under unsanitary conditions and the elderly. Safe drinking-water is suitable for all usual domestic purposes, including personal hygiene. In the context of emergencies, drinking- water may be considered safe when: 1) A sanitary inspection indicates a low risk of faecal contamination, 2) There are no faecal coliforms detectable in any 100-ml sample, 3) For piped water supplies, or for all water supplies at times of risk or presence of diarrhoea epidemic, water is treated with a disinfectant so that there is a free chlorine residual at the tap of 0.5 mg per litre and turbidity is below 5 NTU, 4) No negative health effect is detected due to short-term use of water contaminated by chemical or radiological source and assessment shows no significant probability of such an effect.