Degree of vector-borne disease risk
Malaria: Malaria is one of the major causes of disease and loss of life in emergencies. This indicator is designed to estimate the risk of malaria to the population concerned in general terms, taking into account the following factors: 1) whether or not the area is endemic for malaria; 2) whether or not it is the malaria season; 3) the degree of immunity of the population; 4) the adequacy of measures in place to control malaria transmission. Control measures include rapid and effective management of malaria cases and prevention of transmission through the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, the use of repellents, protecting shelters, indoor residual spraying and control of breeding sites. Mosquito-borne diseases other than malaria: diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever, and other vector-borne diseases such as river blindness and the plague, may be a danger to public health in some circumstances. This indicator is designed to estimate the risk of such diseases to the population concerned in general terms, taking into account the following factors: 1) whether or not the area is endemic for the disease; 2) whether or not it is the season during which the disease is normally transmitted; 3) the degree of immunity of the population; 4) the adequacy of measures in place to control disease transmission. Fly-borne diseases: There is some evidence to suggest that non-biting flies (houseflies, blowflies and several other species) are involved in the transmission of disease by mechanically transferring germs from one place to another, and that the higher the density of flies in a settlement, the greater the intensity of disease transmission. Diseases that may be transmitted by flies include diarrhoeas and other faecal-oral diseases such as typhoid, as well a trachoma. For all of these diseases, flies are just one of a number of pathways of transmission. The density of flies is hard to define in absolute terms. People in the population concerned may report a high (or highest than normal) fly density, though this needs to be interpreted in the context of normal local conditions.